My definition of Instructional Design
Instructional design is a systematic and systemic process for the creation of the instructional resources to effectively and efficiently achieve the expected performance. It is usually viewed as a ‘problem solving’ process.
The competencies of instructional designer…
- Identify appropriate learning approach
- Design instructional materials, curriculums, programs, or solutions
- Collaborate with stakeholders
1) ADDIE Model
ADDIE model is an instructional system design (ISD) model. It is the most popular and powerful model in the instructional design field. The numerous instructional courses are created based on this model. This model is systematic and cyclical and has a connection on each stage organically. ADDIE is the acronym used for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.
In the analysis phase, instructional designers lay the groundwork for course design. They clarify an instructional problem and establish instructional goals and objectives. They also gather information of the target learners’ characteristics based on previous knowledge, experience, and ability level, etc. In the design phase, this is a stage to draw a blueprint. Instructional designers deal with learning objectives which have to measurable and observable, assessment tools, content, exercises, lesson plan, and media selection. They create storyboard and flowchart in this phase. Because this phase should be specific and systemic, the designers also need to execute with attention to detail. In the development phase, the instructional designer organizes and creates actual materials of a learning course in detail. After completing to make all instructional materials, the instructional designer asks experts and/or sets a beta test to review the materials. As getting feedback from the review, the instructional designer can revise the materials. In the implementation phase, instructional designers create a lecture guide or script for facilitators, instructors, and trainers, etc. to prepare it for future use. The material must be useable by the intended audience. In the evaluation phase, instructional designer judges whether the program achieves the goal and finds any factor to change or improve the course. This phase consists of two parts; formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is progressing in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation occurs after final implementation.
Reflection: ETEC 544
A guide to applying a California driver’s license for international students
At the end of this program, the international students who checked this video will be able to clearly gain the detailed information about how to get a California driver’s license, including locate the form, describe the steps about how to do and use the DMV website
What did I learn from the ETEC 544?
When I started my project with the ADDIE model in ETEC 544, it was a challenge for me. I felt that I could easily finish analyzing the needs and deciding the target audience because it was the very first stage of the analysis phase. But, that was really time-consuming and not easy working. In the design phase, I could figure out the flowchart. Formerly, I majored in Electronic Engineering, I was familiar with a robot, programming or some experiments. So, I made the flowchart like the direction of a smartphone application for the first time. But, after feedback from the professor, I learned what kind of flowchart form is suitable in the education design phase. Also, I could learn how to fill in a storyboard.
2) Dick, Carey & Carey Model
Created by EunBi Jeong
This model is referred to as the systems approach because it is built up of interacting components, each having its own input and output. It is more detailed and straight forward than ADDIE model; but, two models are exceptional tools that can be utilized by training designers to create more efficient and deliberate instructional materials
Reflection: ETEC 644
Self-paced online course; PowerPoint for the ministers
What did I learn from the ETEC 644?
In ETEC 644, I made a self-paced online course. Through the project, I learned the importance of navigation on the website. When I tested the course, I realized learners could feel it was hard to follow the navigation even though I thought the class was comfortable to follow. The feedback from experts and learners affected me positively to form the online course website even my E-portfolio. Also, I conducted a formative evaluation in ETEC 644, it was quite an unfamiliar stage for me. I guessed evaluation is only one process to ask the participants to review the materials. But, the evaluation has several stages: expert review, one-to-one evaluation, small group evaluation, and field test. Also, I impressive that the ‘development assessment instruments’ is in early-stage in the Dick and Carey model rather than I expect. After learning the basic knowledge of the ADDIE Model in ETEC 544, I was able to utilize the ADDIE Model as well as the structure of the Dick, Carey, Carey Model.
3) Sam Model
Created by EunBi Jeong
SAM Model; Successive Approximation Model
It is an Agile Instructional Systems Design model that has been proposed as an alternative to the ADDIE Model. It reflects learners’ opinions in early-stage and develops courses through repeated design processes. There may be many changes in the curriculum development process because education contents may be flexible depending on frequent changes in needs and conditions. *Agile; various steps are happening at the same time
Reflection: ETEC 676D
Adaptive learning by using Smart Sparrow
What did I learn from the ETEC 676D?
In ETEC 676D, I learned about SAM model deeply. Honestly, I thought SAM is easier than ADDIE or Dick, Carey & Carey model. Because the SAM model can make people repeat and edit fast. But after learning it in detail, I acknowledged it (especially, SAM2) should be suitable for experts who have rich experience in curriculum development and design when the education scale is big. However, I also believe choosing an effective ID model depends on not only the subject scale but also what is the purpose and who is target learners for the instructional curriculum. And, this class also focused on Adaptive Learning with SmartSparrow. It was a really interesting subject for me. Because I vaguely thought why all students have to follow the class at the same pace? I sometimes felt like ‘this class is so fast, I could not understand very well, I need more explanations and exercises’ or ‘some chapters are easy, so it kind of makes me boring. I want to skip them’. Finally, Adaptive learning can support each student’s learning pace by providing various paths to the students. It sounds magic. When I designed an adaptive learning class by using SmartSparrow, it was truly a good experience for me.
Related ETEC 676D: Adaptive Learning
Created by EunBi Jeong
What is Adaptive Learning? In brief, it is a sort of e-learning which provides learning information or methods to suit the learning level and style of the learner individually. Unlike traditional classes, this is an education that is tailored to the current statuses of the learner by collecting various data such as a result of previous classes and assessments. It makes to acquire the learning subjects by providing video, and simulation lecture, etc. The concept of ‘adaptive learning’ has emerged relatively long time ago. However, now it is commercialized faster than ever before along the recent advances in technology and social changes.
Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey, J. (2015). Systematic Design of Instruction. (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Piskurich, G.M. (2015). Rapid instructional design: Learning ID fast and right. (3rd Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley&Sons, Inc.
Reiser, R., & Dempsey, J. (2002). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Sites, R., & Green, A. (2014). Leaving ADDIE for SAM field guide: Guidelines and templates for developing the best learning experiences. Alexandra, VA: ASTD Press.
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