My Definition of Instructional Technology

Instructional technology is the study and ethical practice of using suitable technological processes and resources for promoting and improving teaching and learning, and performance effectively and efficiently. My definition is pretty similar to the following definition because it involves key aspects.

Educational Technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.

(Januszewski & Molenda, 2008)
  • Study: Instructional technology creates theoretical knowledge through various theories
  • Ethical practice: In recent years, ethical practice became more important in connection with the intellectual property right of digital materials. It is necessary to use properly ethical aspects for the successful use of media or technology
  • Facilitating learning and improving performance: Instructional technology aims to promote learning. It reflects a major change in the theoretical approach to learning. It emphasizes the aspects of applying the learning into the real situation rather than merely memorizing
  • The areas of activity of instructional technology are creating, using and managing
  • Appropriate technological processes and resources: ‘Appropriate’ is used in the same context with ‘sustainability’. This is important in two senses: one is adequacy in the traditional sense (achieving the expected effect or educational objectives) and the other meaning is the ethical nature
  • process: it can be defined as a series of activities to achieve a specific instructional result. This is different from the general process in that it is a technological process
  • Resource: It includes technological innovations for education and learning, tools for social networks, and traditional print media

[Shortcut] IT history | Learning theories | IT heads | IT trends | Reflection

IT History

Created table by EunBi Jeong

Learning Theories

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Technology is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes. (

IT heads

B.F. Skinner

Image: Wikipedia

Reinforcement Theory

Skinner, who is an American psychologist and behaviorist, believed that effective teaching must be based on ‘positive reinforcement’ which is more effective to change and establish the students’ behavior than punishment

Benjamin Bloom

Image: Wikipedia

Created tables by EunBi Jeong
Content Credit: Anderson et al, 2001. A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon. | Bloom et al, 1956. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc.

Dr. Benjamin Bloom is an educational psychologist. He created Bloom’s Taxonomy to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating concepts, processes, procedures, and principles, rather than just remembering facts. It is a very well-known classification of learning objective, and most often used when designing educational, training, and learning processes. The taxonomy is represented as a pyramid that navigates you from bottom to top. A group of cognitive psychologists, education researchers, and curriculum theorists published in 2001 a revised version of Bloom’s Taxonomy. This version uses verbs and gerunds to label the domains whereas original taxonomy used nouns.

Useful link: Using Bloom’s Taxonomy to write effective learning objectives | An introduction to Bloom’s Taxonomy for instructional designers

Jean Piaget


Theory of Cognitive Development

Piaget viewed a cognitive structure development as a differentiation of biological regulation and posited that children progress through 4 stages. He also defined a schema.

Lev Vygotsky

Image: Wikipedia

Social Development Theory

Vygotsky highlighted the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition. He defines a person as a growing social being influenced by interactions with others, and regards the children can reach higher levels of development by interacting with better mature parents, teachers, and colleagues. He proposed a Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) which described as the gap between the actual level of development and the potential development of a learner.

IT Trends

  • Personalized Learning for the unique needs of each students’ learning style and preference
  • Augmented and virtual reality for interacting with the real world and improving learner’s engagement
  • Robotics and coding for enhancing problem-solving abilities, logical and computational thinking, and analytical thinking
  • Gamification for learners’ motivation
  • An online collaborative learning environment 
  • Active Learning. the active learning forum of Minerva School at KGI is a successful active learning example


ETEC 500 taught me Instructional Technology information about history, concepts, and foundation. The knowledge was truly interesting that how different learning theories change the educator’s perspective and IT has been changing to suitably adapt to the rapidly changing world. Also, this class made me think about how learning theory influences my educational philosophy, and how to develop my educational skills with the learning theories as well. The process refined my teaching material in a more effective manner.​ And, this class was my first class of the program, so it guided me on how to follow my future classes.


Januszewski, A., & Molenda, M. (2008). Educational Technology: A Definition with Commentary. New York, U.S.: Lawrence Erlbaum

Northern Illinois University (n.d.). Retrieved from

Ornstein, A, C., Levine, D, U., Gutek, G, L., & Vocke, D, E. (2017). Foundations of education (13th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Piaget, J., & Cook, M. T. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York, NY: International University Press.

Reister, R., & Dempsey, J. (2012). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: PEARSON

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